Poster number 5 submitted by Archie Bhullar
The dynamic, motile and deformative properties of RNA nanoparticles facilitate the third milestone of drug development
Abhjeet S. Bhullar (Biophysics, The Ohio State Univeristy), Peixuan Guo (Pharmacy, Ohio State University), Daniel Binzel (Pharmacy, Ohio State University)
Besides mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA, cells contain many other noncoding RNA that display critical functions in the regulation of cellular functions. Human genome sequencing revealed that the majority of non-protein-coding DNA actually codes for non-coding RNAs. The dynamic nature of RNA results in its motile and deformative behavior. These conformational transitions such as the change of base-pairing, breathing within complemented strands, and pseudoknot formation at a 2D level as well as the induced-fit and conformation capture at the 3D level are important for their biological functions including regulation, translation, and catalysis. The dynamic and motile and catalytic activity has led to a belief that RNA is the origin of life. We have recently reported that the deformative property of RNA nanoparticles enhances their penetration the leaky blood vessel of cancers which leads to high-efficiency tumor accumulation. This special deformative property also enables RNA nanoparticles to pass the glomerulus, overcoming the filtration size limit, resulting in fast renal excretion and rapid body clearance, thus low or no toxicity. The biodistribution of RNA nanoparticles can be further improved by the incorporation of ligands for cancer targeting. In addition to the favorable biodistribution profiles, RNA nanoparticles possess other properties including self-assembly, negative charge, programmability, and multivalency; making it a great material for pharmaceutical applications. The intrinsic negative charge of RNA nanoparticles decreases the toxicity of drugs by preventing nonspecific binding to the negative charge cell membrane and enhancing the solubility of hydrophobic drugs. The polyvalent property of RNA nanoparticles allows the multi-functionalization which can apply to the approach to overcome drug resistance. This review focuses on the summary of these unique properly of RNA nanoparticles, describes the mechanism of RNA dynamic, motile and deformative properties, and elucidates and prepares to welcome the RNA therapeutics as the third milestone in pharmaceutical drug development.